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Jesus and the Apostles appear to have anticipated a great falling away just prior to his return and the full consummation of his Kingdom. Here are 10 things you should know about that Great Apostasy.

The Great Apostasy and The Rebellion are almost certainly the same thing

In Matthew 24, in the middle section of what is generally known as The Olivet Discourse, Jesus appears to refer to some kind of great, end times apostasy. He says:

“And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. 12 And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. 13 But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.” (Matthew 24:10–14 ESV)

This appears to be the background for the Apostle Paul’s teaching in 2 Thessalonians 2 “the rebellion” that must take place just prior to the return of Christ. He says:

“Now concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered together to him, we ask you, brothers, 2 not to be quickly shaken in mind or alarmed, either by a spirit or a spoken word, or a letter seeming to be from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first” (2 Thessalonians 2:1–3 ESV)

In 2 Thessalonians 2:3 Paul uses the Greek word apostasia which can be translated as “apostasy”, “falling away”, “betrayal” or “rebellion” as here in the ESV. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that we are talking about the same event.

The Great Apostasy happens inside the visible or institutional church

The Great Apostasy refers to a significant falling away from the Christian faith. This isn’t a rebellion against the government by unbelievers, this is a rebellion against Christian belief and practice, by previously believing and associating people. This appears to be the near consensus of most reformed and evangelical scholars. Anthony Hoekema for example says here:

“The apostasy will occur within the ranks of the members of the visible church.”[1]

G.K. Beal argues similarly:

“The point Paul appears to be making is that the visible church community, within which true saints exist, will become so apostate that it will be dominantly filled with people who profess to be Christian but really are not. The church will continue to profess to be Christian but most in it will actually not be true believers.”⁠[2]

The Great Apostasy appears to function as an end times trigger

In both Matthew 24 and 2 Thessalonians 2 this Great Apostasy is associated with events immediately prior to the Second Coming of Christ. Jesus says:

“And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another…. And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.” (Matthew 24:10–14 ESV)

In the portion of 2 Thessalonians cited above Paul said that the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ could not have already happened because:

“the rebellion comes first” (2 Thessalonians 2:3 ESV)

He then goes on to talk about how:

“the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming.” (2 Thessalonians 2:8 ESV)

Thus, in both accounts, the Great Apostasy, along with the actions of its main character, the Man of Lawlessness, will immediately precede the coming of the Lord. In fact, Jesus, in the Olivet Discourse, immediately moves from his description of this time period, including the statement, “and then the end will come”, to declare in the following verse:

“So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16 then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.” (Matthew 24:15–16 ESV)

Clearly these events will follow some sort of well-established pattern such that Bible readers and sign watchers will be able to discern that the end is at hand and take appropriate precautions. In the immediate context, in terms of the Olivet Discourse, this refers to the siege and destruction of Jerusalem, but within the Discourse, that event serves as an interpretive lens for anticipating the great and final birth pangs that usher in the end. Thus, it is the Great Apostasy itself and the actions of its main character the Man of Lawlessness that immediately precede and in some sense precipitate, the ultimate end.

The Great Apostasy is associated with “the Man of Lawlessness” 

In 2 Thessalonians 2 The Rebellion is closely associated with the Man of Lawlessness. Paul says:

“Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, 4 who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God.” (2 Thessalonians 2:3–4 ESV)

There is some debate among scholars and commentators as to the precise meaning of the word “and” in verse 3. Is Paul saying that The Rebellion is caused by the Man of Lawlessness? Or does he emerge within and perhaps because of The Rebellion? What is the relationship between the man and the moment?

The grammar itself is not definitive and therefore it is probably simplest and safest to say that the two are connected, though distinct. The season is wider and broader than merely the actions of one man – but the season is characterized and at some point, dominated by, the actions of this seminal character.

The Man of Lawlessness appears to be another name for the Antichrist

The majority of authors and commentators treat the terms “Man of Lawlessness” and “Antichrist” as interchangeable. Sam Storms for example, in his book Kingdom Come, gives the 17th chapter the title, “The Antichrist in Biblical Eschatology: A Study of 2 Thessalonians 2”. This despite the fact that the term “the Antichrist” is never used in 2 Thessalonians 2. In that passage Paul refers only to “the Man of Lawlessness”. In Storms’ mind however, as in the mind of most New Testament scholars, the terms are interchangeable.

The term “Antichrist” is used exclusively by the Apostle John. It occurs for example in 1 John 2:18:

“Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come.” (1 John 2:18 ESV)

Thus, just as John has the spirit of antichrist always among us while also maintaining an expectation that a great and final Antichrist will come, so too Paul speaks of the mystery of lawlessness being always among us and also of a great, archetypal Man of Lawlessness yet to come. Leon Morris says here:

“Paul was writing of someone who would appear only at the end of the age; the Man of Lawlessness is an eschatological figure.”⁠[3]

Clearly the two terms together are referring to the great end-times opposer of the people of God who fulfills the prophetic pattern first introduced in The Book of Daniel. In Daniel 7-10 we are introduced to a character, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who serves as a sort of pattern or “illustration in advance” of the person John refers to as The Antichrist and Paul refers to as the Man of Lawlessness. Tremper Longman III in his commentary on Daniel says that:

“Antiochus becomes an apt symbol for the one Christians know as the Antichrist.”[4]

In Daniel 7:25 it says about him:

“He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time.” (Daniel 7:25 ESV)

For 3.5 years Antiochus Epiphanes was given a long leash to harass and hary the people of God. He wore them out. He ground them down. He tried to erase their distinctive religious expressions through the imposition of Greek holidays, customs and laws. It was a brutal and desperate season, but then as prophesied in verses 26-28:

“the court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end. And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; his kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.’ “Here is the end of the matter.”” (Daniel 7:26–28 ESV)

At the height of his power, in the midst of his attempts to eradicate the faith of the covenant people, decisions are made in heaven, his kingdom comes to a sudden end and his domain is transferred to the saints who shall reign with God forever and ever amen. This is the end of the matter – an ending unmistakably similar to the ending given in Matthew 24:14:

“and then the end will come.” (Matthew 24:14 ESV)

Thus the Man of Lawlessness, also known as the Antichrist, fulfills the pattern established in The Book of Daniel, as originally illustrated in the life, delusions and depravity of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

The Antichrist, or Man of Lawlessness is currently being restrained

In 2 Thessalonians 2:7 the Apostle Paul says:

“For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way.” (2 Thessalonians 2:7 ESV)

In the New Testament the word “mystery” is often used to refer to something hidden in plain sight that arises and becomes clear later on. Thus, Paul would seem to be saying that there is something going on currently that will eventually become much more prominent and would do so now if it were not restrained. Put another way, the devil is always trying to introduce his own gross parody of the incarnation, but as of yet, the birth canal is not wide enough for him to do so. All his efforts are abortive. He has not yet managed to place his man on centre stage, but he is constantly making the effort and his influence and activity can be discerned by the spiritually perceptive. G.K. Beale says here:

“Paul sees that, though this fiend has not yet come so visibly as he will at the final end of history, he is nevertheless ‘already at work’ in the covenant community through his deceivers, the false teachers.”[5]

The restrainer is almost certainly God 

The identity of “he who now restrains it” is the subject of considerable debate. In 2 Thessalonians 2:6-7 Paul says:

And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time. 7 For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way. (2 Thessalonians 2:6–7 ESV)

Much of the confusion is due to the unusual alternation of neuter and masculine terminology. Paul used the neuter gender in verse 6 and the masculine gender in verse 7. You know “what” is restraining – only “he” who now restrains it will do so until “he” is out of the way.

Are we looking for a “he” or an “it”?

That is the question.

Historically a lot of commentators identified the restrainer with the Roman Empire. Tertullian for example, went that route, largely because the Roman Empire could be referred to as an “it” or a “he” depending upon whether the focus was on the Empire itself or the ruling Emperor. Other more modern commentators adopt the same view, though in a more general sense. The Roman Empire is no longer in focus, but many understand the “it” as government in general and the “he” as representative of actual leaders.

Others have said that it refers to an Angelic power. This argument tends to be based on the perceived parallels in the Book of Daniel. In Daniel 10 we meet a spiritual being (some say an angel, others say the preincarnate Christ) who is opposed by another spiritual being and who is assisted by a third spiritual being, the Archangel Michael, in bringing about some sort of purpose that has ramifications in both the earthly and heavenly realms. Daniel 10:13-14 records this divine being saying:

The prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days, but Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, for I was left there with the kings of Persia, 14 and came to make you understand what is to happen to your people in the latter days. For the vision is for days yet to come.” (Daniel 10:13–14 ESV)

In Daniel the geo-political realities at ground level are in some way reflective of realities working out in the spiritual realm. This dynamic could account for the “he/it” language in 2 Thessalonians. The angel could be the “he” and some kind of earthly plan, provision or power could be the “it”.

That’s possible.

However, the simplest approach would be to say that “He who now restrains it” is God. God is ultimately the one who oversee it all. He holds the leash. He is the one who opens and shuts. He kills. He makes alive. He is totally and entirely Sovereign though he works through various agents and means. In the Book of Isaiah in the last chapter, when issues of the new heavens and the new earth are being discussed God says in verse 9:

“Shall I bring to the point of birth and not cause to bring forth?” says the LORD; “shall I, who cause to bring forth, shutthe womb?” says your God.” (Isaiah 66:9 ESV)

Interestingly, the Hebrew word used in verse 9, translated by the ESV as “shut” literally means “to restrain”. It is the Hebrew word atzar.  Thus God literally says in Isaiah 66:9 “shall I always restrain?” The implied answer is “no”. When the time comes, God will fully open the womb and everything planned and ordained from eternity past shall come forth.

In the closest NT parallel – in 1 Timothy 6:14-15 – the Apostle Paul tells his people to:

“keep the commandment unstained and free from reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15 which he will display at the proper time” (1 Timothy 6:14–15 ESV)

“He” in that passage is clearly God. God will decide when the Day of the Lord will be – he will decide when to send Jesus back to the earth. He is in total control of the timeline. Thus it is easy to imagine Paul saying to his people, without feeling the need for further explanation: “You KNOW what is restraining him” – if he were talking about God. Anything else would have to be explained.

The Apostle Peter likewise takes it for granted that God is ultimately in charge of the timing of eschatological events. He says:

“The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance.” (2 Peter 3:9 ESV)

According to Peter, the length of time in the outworking of the plan has nothing to do with disinterest or inability on God’s part; rather the delay has to do with the progress of the Gospel. As Jesus said, this Gospel of the Kingdom will be preached to all nations – and then the end will come.

Peter will go on to say:

“And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him” (2 Peter 3:15 ESV)

Peter assumes that what he is saying in his letters about such things accords perfectly well with what Paul said in his letters – presumably in letters such as 2 Thessalonians.

The restraint will eventually be removed

Jesus in the Olivet Discourse, Paul in 2 Thessalonians and Peter in 2 Peter all appear to agree that the delay with respect to these great end times events is being managed by God as part of his plan to ensure that the Gospel of salvation is extended to all the nations. Once that task has been completed, the leash will be extended, the great end times struggle will begin, and then the end will come.

As to when this will happen, there is no encouragement in the New Testament to inquire too deeply into this matter. Whenever people ask, they are redirected to their commissioned task. In Acts 1, just prior to the ascension, the disciples asked Jesus:

“Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” (Acts 1:6 ESV)

This wasn’t as bad of a question as we sometimes assume. As Old Testament readers and as first century Jews the disciples would have understood the ultimate point of the birth pangs described by Jesus in Matthew 24 as being to bring about the reunification of Israel, including the in-gathered Gentiles, culminating in the long awaited Kingdom of God. In Ezekiel 37 – right after the vision of the dry bones coming back to life – God says:

“Son of man, take a stick and write on it, ‘For Judah, and the people of Israel associated with him’; then take another stick and write on it, ‘For Joseph (the stick of Ephraim) and all the house of Israel associated with him.’ 17 And join them one to another into one stick, that they may become one in your hand.” (Ezekiel 37:16–17 ESV)

Once the disciples came to understand that the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was the long-awaited means by which God would bring about the renewal of all things – it was not a huge leap for them to ask about the subsequent rebuilding of the Kingdom of Israel. On the Day of Pentecost as Jews from the entire dispersion were present to hear the Gospel and were saved and filled with the Holy Spirit that prophesy began to be fulfilled – but the point is that the timeline for the complete fulfillment was never at any point shared with the disciples. They were promised a glimpse of the beginning but they were never promised a living participation in the end. Rather than indulge their curiosity about such things, Jesus in Acts redirected the attention of the disciples to the task at hand:

He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” (Acts 1:7–8 ESV)

Do you want to see the rebuilding of the kingdom of Israel? Then do your job. Be filled with the Holy Spirit and take this Gospel of the kingdom to the ends of the earth.

Applied to the current discussion, we cannot know and are discouraged from inquiring as to the timing of this great eschatological event. The only thing that we can say is that God will maintain his restraint upon the lawless, rebellious, seductive and seditious activity of Satan so as to keep the window of Gospel opportunity open for as long as it takes to complete the Great Commission. As that work is being completed, the length of the devil’s chain will be lengthened, the door for his rebellious purpose will crack open – a great season of tribulation, persecution and sifting will begin and then the end will come.

The Man of Lawlessness will oppose the saints and exalt himself against God

We can anticipate the activity of the Man of Lawlessness during his time of extended permission by appealing to the historical example of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. As Tremper Longman III said:

“Antiochus becomes an apt symbol for the one Christians know as the Antichrist.”[6]

In Daniel 7:25 it says about him:

“He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time.” (Daniel 7:25 ESV)

For 3.5 years Antiochus IV Epiphanes was given extensive permission to harass and hary the people of God. He wore them out. He ground them down. He tried to impose Hellenizing holidays, customs and laws upon them. He tried to erase their way of life.

He also attempted to position himself as the ultimate object of loyalty and religious fealty. In Daniel 8:9-11 the text says, referring to Antiochus IV Epiphanes as “a little horn”:

“Out of one of them came a little horn, which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the glorious land. 10 It grew great, even to the host of heaven. And some of the host and some of the stars it threw down to the ground and trampled on them. 11 It became great, even as great as the Prince of the host.”  (Daniel 8:9–11 ESV)

The text appears to be saying that Antiochus will not be content with “ground level victories”; he will wage war on heaven itself – even upon the host of heaven! What could that mean? How is that possible? And who is the Prince of the Host that Antiochus appears to rival in this cosmic conflict? This is a matter of some debate among commentators. Some say it refers to Michael the Archangel; some say it refers to Gabriel the hero of God. We don’t know, we just know that the spiritual battle is obviously very intense. As in the days of Noah, lines are being blurred between the earthly and the heavenly realm and for a moment, it appears at least, that the outcome is in doubt.

This aligns very well with what we see in in 2 Thessalonians 2:4. The Apostle Paul describes the Man of Lawlessness as one:

“who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God.” (2 Thessalonians 2:4 ESV)

Paul understanding, guided by inspiration no doubt, also has been clearly influenced by the Book of Daniel. His depiction of the end-times Man of Lawlessness appears to draw heavily upon the historical reality that was Antiochus IV Epiphanes – and he was likely pointed in that direction by no less an authority than Jesus himself. In the Olivet Discourse Jesus embeds one clue as to the timing of these great end-times events. He says:

“So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16 then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.” (Matthew 24:15–16 ESV)

Jesus seems to be saying that when we see the Daniel story repeating itself – run for the mountains! The Day of the Lord is at hand!

Given that Jesus himself identifies the repetition of the Daniel pattern as the trigger event – specifically what he calls “the abomination of desolation” – obviously we want to know what that means. Daniel uses some version of this expression four times – 8:13, 9:27, 11:31 and 12:11. The expression itself is hard to interpret, so Luke, in his Gospel, provides us with some additional commentary. In Luke 21:20-22 Jesus says:

“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. 21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, 22 for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written.” (Luke 21:20–22 ESV)

In Luke’s version Jesus is clearly saying that when the Romans begin to march on Jerusalem, no time is to be spared. Run! The great Day of Vengeance is at hand.

If we are correct in understanding the destruction of Jerusalem as the first “great tribulation” then the same approach is to be applied to the last “great tribulation”. Thus when Jesus in Matthew 24:15-16 says to watch for the trigger event, he means that when we see the church surrounded by enemies; when she is hated by all; when the Man of Lawlessness has his foot on her throat and appears to have her completely at his mercy – run! The Day of the Lord is at hand!

That appears to provide much needed context for Paul’s statement in 2 Thessalonians 2:4 when he speaks about the Man of Lawlessness exalting himself:

“against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God.” (2 Thessalonians 2:4 ESV)

What would it mean for the Man of Lawlessness to take his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God? How could that happen? Where could that happen? Of course, there is no temple of God in a physical sense; the temple was destroyed in AD 70, so how would a prophesy like that work out now?

Herman Ridderbos is helpful here, he says:

“To sit in the temple is a divine attribute, the arrogating to oneself of divine honor.”[7]

Most commentators understand it that way. F.F. Bruce understands the expression as being:

“a graphic way of saying that he plans to usurp the authority of God.”[8]

There are some who think this prophecy necessitates the rebuilding of the actual, physical temple in Jerusalem – but that would be to run completely against the grain of New Testament theology. The phrase “temple of God” is used 10 other times in the New Testament – outside of 2 Thessalonians – and in 9 of those 10 times it refers to the Christian church. Sam Storms says here:

“The way this language is used elsewhere in the New Testament, especially in the writings of Paul himself, makes it unlikely that it could refer to anything other than the Church, the body of Christ, the only temple in which God is pleased ever again to dwell.”[9]

Thus, it would appear that we are to anticipate that once the Antichrist has the church seemingly, completely in his power; once he has his boot on our neck; he will attempt to force the church in some way, to acknowledge his Divinity.

That’s the trigger moment.

When that happens – run for the mountains! Because the end of all things is at hand.

The Great Apostasy and the Man of Lawlessness will come to an end at the Return of Jesus Christ

Antiochus IV Epiphanes appeared for a moment to be a rival, event to the host of heaven. He made remarkable progress and amassed incredible power, all within a reasonably short period of time. But then, without warning, everything came to a sudden and devastating end. Daniel 7:26-28 says:

“The court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end. 27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; his kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.’ 28 “Here is the end of the matter. (Daniel 7:26–28 ESV)

And so it was.

At the height of his power, in the midst of his arrogant and blasphemous campaign, Antiochus IV Epiphanes died suddenly of disease in 164 BC.

He came. He did what he was permitted to do. He died.

“Here is the end of the matter. (Daniel 7:28 ESV)

Such a pattern leads us to expect that the end-times Man of Lawlessness will appear suddenly, rise rapidly, rule demonically only to be destroyed catastrophically. That appears to correspond precisely with the prophecy of the Apostle Paul:

“And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming.” (2 Thessalonians 2:8 ESV)

His reign will be short and brutal; his end sudden and unlamented. Then:

“the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; his kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.’” (Daniel 7:27 ESV)

Thus the appearing of the Man of Lawlessness, though terrible in the short term, is a harbinger of the Kingdom of God. His reign of brutality and terror functions as a final sifting mechanism and also serves to refine and prepare the people of God for the triumphant return of Jesus Christ. It is the last terrible birth pang that leads to the long-awaited child. Jesus told his disciples:

“You will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy. 21 When a woman is giving birth, she has sorrow because her hour has come, but when she has delivered the baby, she no longer remembers the anguish, for joy that a human being has been born into the world. 22 So also you have sorrow now, but I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy from you.” (John 16:20–22 ESV)

Thanks be to God!

 

SDG,

Pastor Paul Carter

 


To listen to an Into The Word Excursus Episode on The Great Apostasy see here. To listen to the most recent episodes of Pastor Paul’s Into The Word devotional podcast on the TGC Canada website see here. To access the entire library of available episodes see here. You can find his personal blog, Semper Reformanda, by clicking here.

 

[1] Anthony A. Hoekema, The Bible And The Future (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994), 153.

[2] G.K. Beale, The Temple and the Church’s Mission in New Studies In Biblical Theology (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2004), 280.

[3] Leon Morris, The First And Second Epistles To Thessalonians in The New International Commentary On The New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991), 221.

[4] Tremper Longman III, Daniel in The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), 209.

[5] G.K. Beale, The Temple and the Church’s Mission in New Studies In Biblical Theology (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2004), 287.

[6] Tremper Longman III, Daniel in The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), 209.

[7] Herman Ridderbos as cited in Anthony A. Hoekema, The Bible And The Future (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994), 160.

[8] F.F. Bruce, 1&2 Thessalonians in Word Biblical Commentary (Waco: Word Books, 1982), 169.

[9] Sam Storms, Kingdom Come (Geanies House: Mentor, 2013), 530.

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